German physicists are questioning the seriousness of Newton

The dark matter is defined as the invisible matter constituting a quarter of the universe and which would preserve the galaxies from self-destruction. For some time, the number of physicists who doubt its existence increases. German researchers have now published articles calling into question the existence of dark matter and coming into conflict with Newton's law of gravitation, one of the foundations of physics, which is based on the standard cosmology. "It could be that Newton was wrong," says Prof. Dr. Pavel Kroupa of the Institute of Astronomy Argelander (AIFA) at the University of Bonn. "It is true that his theory describes the daily effects of gravity on Earth that we can see and measure. But we do perhaps not even the actual physical behind gravity.

In various articles published in "Astrophysical Journal and Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, the research team with Professor. Kroupa, in cooperation with the team of Prof.. Dr. Gerhard Hansler, Director of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Vienna and Dr Helmut Jerjen, the Australian National University, analyzed satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. These are dwarf galaxies containing only a few hundred stars. "Our observations show that the distribution of satellite galaxies is totally inconsistent with the prediction of standard cosmology," says Dr. Jerjen. Indeed, the standard cosmology provides an even distribution of satellite galaxies around the Milky Way, or the 30 known galaxies are more or less the same region.

It is assumed that satellite galaxies have appeared in an early phase of the universe from remnants of a collision. Two of them are in collision and formed the central spherical area of the Milky Way. Such a collision induced the formation of galaxies of arms because the gravitational pull of the galaxy on the first second was stronger on one side than the other: they are separated. Small satellite galaxies were formed in the arm. According to standard theory, they can not contain dark matter. However, "the stars of satellite galaxies discussed moving much faster than foreseen in the calculations," says Dr. Manuel Metz of the AIFA, which is interpreted in terms of the classical presence of dark matter . A contradiction, unless we admit that the foundations of physics were poorly understood until now.

"We are probably in a non-Newtonian universe," says Prof. Kroupa. "If this assumption is true, our observations can be explained without dark matter." Prof.. Kroupa and his colleagues on the premise that in the galactic characterized by low accelerations, there is a "modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), an alternative to the concept of dark matter. Researchers are far from unanimous, according to Dr. Simon White, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching: "So far, there is no change in the law of gravity that can explain the entire range of observations in the universe. Perhaps we are all on the wrong track, but the alternatives are not very attractive. " Doubts also exist within the AIFA. Dr. Thomas Reiprich, the director of a research group responsible for the observation of dark matter in clusters of galaxies, said the comments on the pile of pellets made in recent years. This cluster, the result of the collision of two galaxy clusters, is now one of the best evidence of the existence of dark matter. In this cluster, the distribution of gas is not in accordance with predictions, concentrated around a mass more important, a phenomenon that is explained by the fact that "most of the mass is in the form of particles invisible ie dark matter, "continued Dr. Reiprich.

Today it seems important to examine the differences found in relation to the standard theory.

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